Eco Brooklyn does a lot of dumpster diving. Most of the materials we use for jobs – floors, decks, pergolas, paving, stairs – comes from dumpsters in the New York area. One reporter called it “guerrilla green building.”
Our lucrative dumpster diving is a testament to the massive waste our society creates. We have literally rebuilt an entire brownstone using salvaged materials for everything but the mechanicals and windows (those things needed to be new because it was a Passive House renovation). And this is high end NY construction.
This is why we love Rob Greenfield. He does the exact same thing only with food. Check him out. Think about it next time you buy a bag of perfectly shaped shinny apples at the store. Don’t you wonder where all the other apples that aren’t 100% perfect go? But perfection won’t even keep food from being thrown out. Sometimes it’s just cheaper to throw it out than store it for the next day.
As green building gains momentum so does the quest for new sources of power and ways to tap into that power. And as those energy sources keep increasing there becomes a need to organize them. Enter the Smart Grid.
The smart grid will bridge that gap between buildings and power sources, both the new green sources like solar and the older traditional ones like damns.
This will make it easier for a solar installer like Eco Brooklyn to install a solar array and plug the source to the grid without any fancy wiring. This reduces installation costs, worker skill set, and in turn makes solar a much more attractive option for homeowners.
Con Edison has already put plans into motion to build NYC’s 3rd generations’ grid – The new grid structure will include smart meters, building management systems, smart Photo Voltaic installations, and the ability to plug in hybrid vehicles.
Currently our grid only delivers power mainly in one direction and there is almost no communication between source and user. It is possible to install a Grid-Tied solar system, where a home owner’s solar array sends unused electricity back to the grid. But the process is not optimal and remains clunky to install. The new system allows for flexibility and two way communication needed to accommodate and manage growth and energy need of future generations.
The automation increases the reliability and security of our power supply too. Smart meters gather information and send it back to ConEd which allows them to see how we are using energy; enabling them to monitor the supply more efficiently.
Given the US electric infrastructure is grossly outdated and overtaxed, increased monitoring can mean the difference between a working air conditioner on a hot summer day and a complete blackout in the entire state.
The smart meters have an in home display that shows the user how they are using the energy, giving them the capability to manage power hungry devices. The term ‘out of sight out of mind’ will be something of the past as far as energy use is concerned. The in home monitors are the first step for users to first become aware of and then break their old energy using habits. Now that they know how much it costs to run the A/C at 65 degress they may get comfortable with a little more heat in their life.
Given the intelligent two way monitoring of a Smart Grid, electric powered cars can be charged easily and have the option to charge when prices are low.
All of these improvements make it easy for green builders and green contractors to incorporate new power generation sources for the consumer. In turn the new grid gives the average consumer the capacity to adjust their power usage to save themselves money and consequently reducing load on our power delivery system. For Eco Brooklyn this simplification is good news. We struggle to explain the benefits of a solar installation but the Smart Grid makes our job much easier.
The book Everyone Poops states an obvious fact, and so humanity has forever been forced to answer the question: what do I do with this shit? Literally. Throughout history, societies have come up with a range of strategies to dump what’s been dumped, from burying it in pits to simply letting it run in the streets. For those of us born into the affluent West within the past 250 years, however, there has been only one acceptable system: the flush toilet.
Forget What’s Your Poo Telling You? (does it float? Gassy stomach), the flush toilet took a giant pair of shears to the connection between ourselves and our waste. Simply make a deposit, and a magical current of sparkling, drinking quality water will whisk all evidence away, to a never-never land, the great sewer in the sky. The flush toilet officially makes your poop Not Your Problem.
Certainly there are health and hygiene benefits to be found in separating human populations from mountains of fecal matter. But the system we have become dependent on to solve this issue was never going to be sustainable. Its basis lies in taking clean potable water, polluting it, then using more energy to clean it from the waste we added.
Or worse, the sludge is dumped into in a river or ocean where a normally very beneficial and nutrient rich mix creates havoc on the water ecosystem.
The flush toilet was thus perhaps the most harmful, least beneficial and yet most celebrated invention to ever be celebrated as a success of “development.” These seemingly luxurious seats of porcelain take a helpful, nutrient-filled substance and turn it into waste, while dirtying clean drinking water. The traditional toilet where it’s mixed with fresh water and thrown away just doesn’t make ecological sense.
There is evidence of water-powered sanitation systems even in archeological sites dating from the 31st century BCE, in Britain’s Skara Brae, Orkney, but it wasn’t until the 1850s that our familiar, clean water-intensive toilets became widespread. Since then, people have polluted an obscene amount of drinking water by using it as transportation for their waste, not to mention using energy and polluting through our bathrooms. Americans alone flush 4.8 billion gallons of water down their toilets every day. The waste from water toilets accounts for 90% of each household’s environmental pollution, and toilets account for about a quarter of the average home’s water use.
Luckily, after only a few generations, people are beginning to realize what an error we’ve made, and are designing toilets that combine ancient understandings of human waste’s potential with current sanitation technology.
Enter: the composting toilet.
A composting toilet is a dry toilet that uses a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition.
By installing a composting toilet, you can transform your waste from environmental problem to solution. These toilets eliminate the use of water, instead transforming waste into compost through aerobic decomposition. The benefits to you and the environment are enormous. A compost toilet will provide you with a constant source of quality soil, save you money (installing a compost toilet costs 25-75% less than a septic system), and spare waterways the harmful runoff from common sewage systems.
After the initial time to get over any lingering squeamishness you might have after a lifetime of seeing your waste magically sail away, the transition to a composting toilet doesn’t have to be difficult at all.
There are two main types of composting toilets: self-contained appliance toilets, which compost waste directly under the toilet seat within the room, and central systems, also called remote or bi-level, which transport waste to a container located in another location. When preparing to make the switch, first consider what your space is like. Do you have enough for a bilevel? Do you have access to an adequate supply of energy, or will you need a passive design? Compost is catalyzed by heat, so consider whether you can put your toilet in a heated room or will have to heat and insulate your toilet separately? Consider locating your toilet next to a south-facing window or near a heat-generating machine to effortlessly increase its temperature.
Composting toilets appear similar to flush toilets. Their structures range from simple boxes to familiar ceramic seats, many of which have two chambers to guide the separation of urine from feces. After each use, all composting toilets require additional input of a cover material, such as ash, peat moss, or wood chippings. Bacteria and fungi then work their magic to alchemize human waste into humanure- a rich, humus soil, which is 10 to 30 percent of the original volume.
Composting toilets range from multi-thousand dollar high-tech machines to buckets with a toilet seat. Self-contained units allow waste to decompose right under the toilet, and must be emptied, while more complex remote systems funnel waste to a further location, perhaps a basement or backyard. Most pre-built composting toilets cost around $1,500 to $3000but pay for themselves in avoided water and sewage bills. Many high-tech toilets include special features to catalyze decomposition and prevent odor, including heating units, injected air, air baffles, and worm units. These add-ons will naturally require some energy input, however. A simpler model, built yourself, can be as cheap as the materials you can salvage.
Adding a composting toilet to a New York City residence is not easy. Eco Brooklyn has done it when we do gut renovations. We did it in a brownstone and in a shipping container building. The reasons for doing this in Brooklyn or NYC are primarily to reduce the flooding of the rivers with sewage when it rains.
In places outside of the city it makes even more sense. If you are in a place that uses ceptic systems then the reasons are even greater.
If you’re ready to take the plunge, you have a variety of options:
A New York and Brooklyn Composting Toilet Installer: Eco Brooklyn. These gays are amazing.
One unfortunate hurdle to installing a composting toilet is that, as with any building project, you must apply for a permit, and since they are relatively unknown in the United States, composting toilets sometimes face ignorance-induced discrimination from the local department of building (DOB).
This happened to Eco Brooklyn when we applied for a permit to install a composting toilet with SunMar. The DOB denied us because of concerns that it might release too much carbon dioxide, despite the fact that composting toilets are vented like any other toilet. Bottom line, their response was not based on fact: they didn’t know how a composting toilet works so simply denied it. A bottle of sparkling water releases more carbon dioxide into a house than a composting toilet. And besides, who cares. Carbon dioxide is hardly dangerous to a home.
Once installed, a composting toilet requires slight maintenance. Frequent addition of carbon heavy organic material is the most frequent maintenance, but think of that cupful of sawdust as the equivalent to a flush. Composting toilets will only clog if you overload it at a pace more rapid than it can decompose, so you no longer have to worry about dragging out the old plunger. If it does start to smell, troubleshoot by adding more cover material. You can put anything you would put into a normal composting pile into your composting toilet.
One could argue that the greenest buildings are the ones that last the longest- not only because of the material, but also design.
As with all things – buildings erode. From the 16th century half-timbered houses in Norway to the Chrysler building – even the best built structures wear with time. As time moves forward, and the paint chips off, our emotional attachment to these structures only grows. It seems obvious that we should allocate funds to restore and maintain these buildings as these are icons of a time and space which no longer exist. But then a question arises: do we preserve their original integrity or do we implement new technologies to make these famed structure more energy efficient to comply with changing times?
Conservation is the process through which historic materials and design integrity are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. Preservation is a process that seeks to preserve and protect building, objects and landscapes in their original form.
Although these two schools of thought may seem to be very closely related, there seems to be a tension that has emerged.
To examine these difference in the ideology of preserving and conserving, I will examine two case studies-the first of which is Frank Lloyd Wright’s Seth Peterson Cottage. The second is Mies Van De Rohe’s Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Frank Lloyd Wright was designed over 1000 structures and completed 500 works. He believed that architecture should work in accordance with nature to create a harmonious relationship between the natural and built environment – he called this philosophy organic architecture.
The Seth Peterson Cottage – a two-room, 880 square foot lakeside cottage located in the Mirror Lake State Park in Wisconsin was designed in 1958. Seth Peterson, the owner, took his own life prior to the completion of the cottage; the next two owners completed the project.
The cottage went into disrepair after 1966. It was not until the 1980’s when local activists came up with the idea of completely restoring the now State-owned cottage to offer as a getaway to renters.
The State hired Chicago architect John Eifler to do the restoration. Following the initial inspection of the cottage, Eifler’s mechanical engineer concluded that the existing single-pane glazing (which covers 60% of the façade) would lead to a building that would be virtually impossible to heat in the winter. Eifler proposed a double pane glazing increase the heating efficiency, but the State Historic Preservation Office refused his initial proposal.
Eventually, Eifler succeeded with the proposed double pane glazing and installed his windows and added appropriate Usonian-style furniture and was able to restore the FLT gem to its original glory.
Eifler didn’t just restore the original FLW design but rather built it towards the future by considering the present and expected energy concerns. Eifler added a radiant floor heating system, with insulation beneath the heating system to ensure that the heat rises into the house, rather than seeps into the earth and electronic roller shades that drop down on winter nights providing further insulations.
Our second case study concerns Mies Van De Rohe’s Crown Hall, which is the home of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Completed in 1959, Crown Hall is one of the most architecturally significant buildings of the 20th century. As one of Mies’s masterpieces, Crown Hall is a perfect example of steel and glass construction and an example of the beauty that is inherently found in function – a notion that is also applicable to Green building.
By 2003, Crown Hall was in desperate need of repair, the stairs were cracking, the once-jet black facade had faded to a shade of gray and ivy had begun to climb up the exposed steel structure.
In order to restore the structure, Krueck& Sexton of Chicago along with preservation architect Gunny Harbow were commissioned to update the iconic structure. In order to maintain design integrity the architects chose to use huge low-iron glass sheets for the façade/ In order to keep these massive sheets in place there were forced to diverge from the original design. They were forced to design diagonal sloping “stops” – this made the right-angle-Mies-worshippers crazy. The result was not only successful but the low iron glass restored the cool elegance of increased natural light which lead to lower light use and cut down on the heating requirements.
Although both these projects are dealing with structures by modern masters, Eifler was dealing was a small, residential building were as Krueck &Sexton were dealing with one of the Mies masterpieces. For Krueck & Sexon, maintaining the authenticity of the original design was the greatest concern and outweighed the energy concerns. To the Crown Hall crew, prolonging the life of the building while maintain the highest level of artistry and expression was the objective. For example they felt it was inappropriate to install a green roof just to cut down the urban heat island effect not merely outfitting a classic example of architecture with solar panels.
It seems that when that there is a pivotal choice that has to be made: what meaning or interpretation do we choose to express in a restoration? Artistic integrity or buildings for the future?
The Eco Brooklyn Showhouse is a hybrid of both the preserve and the converse schools of thought. When Gennaro and his partner, Loretta in 2008 the bought their Carrol Gardens Brownstone was livable but the latest restoration had taken place in the 1970’s. Gennaro knew that he would use this structure has a laboratory for green research, design and construction. Over the past four years he has refurbished the entirety of the interior and exteriors not just by repairing what needed repairs but diving into the history of the structure.
When cleaning paint off of the siding on the house, Gennaro discovered reminisce of three painted flowers. He has since updated the paint and the flowers are now an interesting and historic detail that is once again visible on the façade.
Gennaro also used the original staircase and banister that connects the first floor to the third. When they first bought the house, the original banister was in terrible condition. Gennaro and his crew had to deconstruct and then rebuild the banisher to its originally glory.
Although, preserving the historic integrity was not the only goal of this Carroll Gardens restoration, this house was to be a green Showhouse, so it not only needed to represent the past, but simultaneously build for the future.
Through the restoration Gennaro suscessfully created an extremely tight thermal envelope similar to the standsards used for Passive House, and also added a natural pool, green roof, and a garden pond.
By going back to these old structures, whether that be a lakeside cottage in Wisconsin, a steel and glass academic building or a classic Brooklyn brownstone one can learn something about efficiency and function. Advancing technology often brings us away from the simplicity of good design. In the Frank Llogd wright cottage, the floor plan centered around the fireplace to effective heat the entire space. The Mies building had large glass windows to increase natural light and the Brooklyn brownstoners abut each other to retain the heat. There is something to be learned from the past as we move forward.
Are you ready for a climate movement that doesn’t compromise? One that takes the struggle directly to the profiteers creating the crisis?
Ahead of the UN climate summit in New York City, green groups are expecting more than 200,000 people to join the People’s Climate March to demand that the establishment act before it’s too late.
What’s really exciting is that after the People’s Climate March, thousands will join #FloodWallStreet, a mass direct action on September 22 confronting the root causes of the climate crisis and the Wall Street tycoons that profit from it.
If you help make #FloodWallStreet a huge, global phenomena, we can make clear we are no longer going to compromise and will pursue nothing less than radical action against the fossil fuel industry and its profiteers. So let’s kickoff #FloodWallStreet today by flooding the net.
Here’s the idea: By promoting #FloodWallStreet in a coordinated fashion, all on the same day, we can dominate the Facebook and twitter feeds of people connected to the climate movement. We can recruit thousands more to participate in #FloodWallStreet both online and in the streets and even shift the narrative before the action begins!
3. Once you’ve joined, you’ll see a new set of buttons. Next, click the “Invite” button that just appeared, and pick “Choose Friends”
4. In the box that pops up, select the friends you’d like to invite, and then when you’ve selected everyone, click ‘Save.’ You can also search for particular friends, or do a second round of invites if you don’t get everyone the first time.